A man who went berserk at his elderly parents’ home, punching his sister in the face three times and chasing his brother with a bale hook has been jailed for four months.Patrick McLaughlin, aged 53, from Gaoth Dobhair appeared at Letterkenny District Court facing a number of charges. The court was told that Gardai were summoned to the McLaughlin household on July 4th last after the accused had committed a number of offences.His sister Sarah was hiding in her car after being set upon by Patrick during which he punched her three times in the face.He then ran into the kitchen of the home and grabbed a cheese knife and a bale hook and was threatening his brother James.Gardai told the court that McLaughlin banged the bale hook on the ground and threatened his brother saying “I’m going to stick it straight through you.”All of the incidents were witnessed by Mrs McLaughlin’s 15-year-old son who was present at the time.The court heard that Patrick McLaughlin has a total of 40 previous convictions for a variety of offences including criminal damage, assault and public order.Defence solicitor Patsy Gallagher said his client had been doing well for the past 18 months but there had been a lapse in his medication.He said McLaughlin could not remember the extent of what had happened at his parents home.He asked Judge Paul Kelly that rather than sending his client to jail he could give him a suspended sentence under the agreement that he stay away from the family home in Gaoth Dobhair.Judge Kely said he accepted that McLaughlin had difficulties but stressed that he had an appalling record.“There was a fearsome weapon produced which must have been terrifying for anyone at the scene,” he said.He jailed McLaughlin for four months for the possession of the bale hook and a further three months for assaulting Sarah McLaughlin with both sentences to run concurrently.Man who punched sister three times in face jailed for four months was last modified: July 22nd, 2019 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:assaultbale hookcourtdonegalGaoth DobhairPATRICK MCLAUGHLIN
If you’re a city person, you will love Johannesburg. It’s a vibrant and dynamic place with a throbbing pulse and an awesome sense of rhythm.Johannesburg is known as the City of Gold. (Image: Brand South Africa)Brand South Africa reporterJohannesburg is the major international gateway into South Africa so you are quite likely to spend, at the very least, a few hours in this rather misunderstood and misrepresented city. It’s a vibrant and dynamic place with a throbbing pulse and an awesome sense of rhythm.Everyone is on the move – doing business, making money, jogging, going to gym, cycling, partying till late, eating out, and attending shows, movies and exhibitions. If you’re a city person, you will love Johannesburg.The older part of the city is developing an interesting character – in parts somewhat neglected and a bit scary, and in parts humming with a new kind of vibrancy.It is the de facto capital of Africa – in the centre of Johannesburg, you will find people from all over the continent, and in some pretty unusual and out-of-the way venues, you can sample their cuisine and jive to their music – not for the faint of heart, though.Also in the city centre is the Civic Theatre, and the Newtown Cultural Project, with Museum Africa. But the head offices of major corporations, and the majority of businesses, have moved out to the northern suburbs and to Midrand – the burgeoning industrial, commercial, semi-agricultural and residential area halfway between Johannesburg and Pretoria.The northern suburbs radiate a sense of opulence and prosperity. The many shopping malls carry a vast range of high quality consumer goods, including many luxuries, and the hundreds of restaurants and coffee shops offer a wide range of fashionable cuisines.There really is a lot to do in Johannesburg. You could go on an escorted tour of Soweto, which is not the voyeuristic horror it sounds like. It’s actually a mind-expanding experience as you see not only how other people live, but also how this resilient community contributed to South Africa’s liberation struggle.A visit to Gold Reef City is a fun day out with amusement rides and a reconstructed mining village, but it is a lot more authentic than most theme parks. The trip down a gold mine is a real eye-opener, but that’s nothing compared to the paradigm shift many people may experience in visiting the Apartheid Museum, also at Gold Reef City.And for the golf enthusiast, Johannesburg is a wonderful destination. The city boasts an ideal climate for spending time out on the fairways under the bright African sun, and golfers here are blessed for choice – there are golf courses aplenty in the city and more widely in its province, Gauteng.Golf courses in GautengIf you’d prefer something unbelievably beautiful, watch a performance by the Lippizaner horses on a Sunday morning, at their premises in Kyalami. You could do a walking tour to look at some lovely old buildings, or just park off at a coffee shop in a mall and watch the world and its wallet walk past.Source: South African TourismWould you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See Using Brand South Africa material.
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Episode 12 of the Ohio Ag Net Podcast, courtesy of AgriGold, enjoys the company of Ty Higgins, Dale Minyo, Bart Johnson, Risë Labig, and host Joel Penhorwood. Matt Reese joins us through his half-marathon buddy Joe Hoover talking about the East Tech School and FFA, busy teaching agriculture in urban areas. Dale speaks with John and Todd Davis on the newly rebuilt Discovery Center at Ohio FFA Camp Muskingum. Ty hears from Aaron Heilers on a tour of the Blanchard River Demonstration Farms. Plus, the crew wraps it all up with a bit of wedding advice to the soon-to-be-married Joel. Join us for the Ohio Ag Net Podcast!
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest By Evin Bachelor, Law Fellow, Agricultural and Resource Law Program, Ohio State UniversityThe Ohio Fourth District Court of Appeals recently affirmed a decision finding a verbal agreement to adjust contributions between members of a Limited Liability Company (LLC) to be unenforceable, even if the other party admitted to making the statements. Ohio Revised Code § 1715.09(B) requires a signed writing in order to enforce a “promise by a member to contribute to the limited liability company,” and therefore the court could not enforce an oral agreement to adjust contributions.The Fourth District Court of Appeals heard the case of Gardner v. Paxton, which was originally filed in the Washington County Court of Common Pleas. The plaintiff, Mr. Gardener, argued that his business partner breached an agreement to share in LLC profits and losses equally. In order to share equally, both parties would have needed to adjust their contributions, but Mr. Paxton only made verbal offers that were never reduced to writing. Because there was no writing, Mr. Paxton’s statements were not enforceable by his business associate against him.
8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market Tags:#Government#web Related Posts Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… The problem with working to change United States foreign policy is that you’re never really sure what it’s going on behind the curtain. By the time you have submitted a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request and the government deems the information you’re asking for safe, the present has passed into history. Which raises the question, will WikiLeaks bring us the transparency we need to be able to understand the internal workings of U.S. covert operations?The world of top-secret America has grown exponentially since 9/11, with over 263 organizations created or reorganized. Much is happening in this world that is not only hidden from us, but from itself. A dark and Kafkaesque bureaucracy devoted to protecting us lurks beneath our democratic process, and we need to know its shape in order to have an accurate understanding of domestic and international policy.Guest author Jeremy John is a Technologist at EchoDitto, a leading digital strategy and technology firm leveraging new media and participatory technologies to affect positive social change. He has been an activist ever since he accidentally ate the red pill instead of the more harmless blue one. He’s been an advocate for an assortment of human rights issues, including (but not limited to) debt cancellation for developing nations, closing the School of the Americas, decent groundwater standards in Indiana, and sustainable globalization. He blogs at glassdimly.com.The ability to excavate the doings of the CIA and FBI comes years after the ability to do anything about it has long past. Internationally, history has revealed that the CIA has been involved in regime changes in many places, including Afghanistan. Domestically, the Church Committee exposed the workings of COINTELPRO, the FBI’s domestic program to disrupt the civil rights movement, which included a massive plan to discredit and undermine Dr. Martin Luther King. But this was released in 1975 and King died in 1968. We now know that the FBI came down on the wrong side of history. Would radical governmental transparency have forced the FBI to respect MLK? The CIA may or may not have looked the other way while their operatives, after delivering supplies and weapons to the Nicaraguan rightist rebels, flew cocaine back to the gangs in LA ghettos to be made into crack. (See also today’s related post, “What Mark Zuckerberg Told Time About Wikileaks“.) Whistleblower and Pulitzer Prize-awarded journalist Gary Webb (below) lost his job at the San Jose Mercury News and eventually committed suicide over his article “Dark Alliance,” that reported on these connections. History is divided on the veracity of his claims (despite the firsthand testimony he collected into his book). It goes to show that being on the cutting edge of history can hurt. It’s never easy to be a whistleblower like Assange.What is certain is that the covert military’s operations always operate under plausible deniability. For activists who see traces of the CIA’s operations in international conflicts this can be frustrating. How, exactly, do the State Department and the CIA work together? Because we cannot know what is happening in the present, history is the study of the already obsolete. How can we affect change if we cannot see inside this dark machine?It is the connection between history and the present moment that is so often lacking. We can all become scholars of the CIA’s historic role in shaping world events, but the real question is the now. What is the CIA doing right now?The federal Freedom of Information Act gives members of the public access to information created by any public agency. While there are rules dictating how much time a public agency can take to fulfill a request (as well as how much money they can charge to do so), it sometimes takes years, thousands of dollars and even lawsuits before that information is disclosed.WikiLeaks provides us with the hope of a pre-FOIA FOIA. Information not requested and unexpected may continue to fall from the sky. Perhaps, from those pages, we will glean something of what the CIA and State Department are doing overseas.If we are able to obtain this information through WikiLeaks, we may be able to interact with the covert military operations that the U.S. is undertaking as they are taking place. If so, we may be able to turn the tide of history.Are we approaching an age where we can confront history as it is happening? I ask, who watches the watchmen? In an age where an entire military-political machine is hidden below the surface, hidden from scrutiny, I hope that WikiLeaks will cause our society pause to reflect on this as a danger to liberty and open the front door. And a few windows while we’re at it, because the house needs some fresh air.Gary Webb screen grab from “Gary Webb: In his own words“ A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… guest author 1 Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting
Over the last several years I have accumulated a range of questions about how blower doors and blower door testing work. So when another new query popped up in my head, a question about AeroBarrier and how it uses the blower door to both air seal and test for airtightness, I figured it was time to check in with an expert.Collin Olson is Staff Physicist for The Energy Conservatory (TEC). He holds a PhD in Physics from the University of Wisconsin—Madison, where he initially specializing in high energy particle physics.Collin starts our conversation by explaining why he is not an engineer, how he met Gary Nelson (the founder of TEC), and ended up working at TEC himself (it’s all about music).“As an undergrad at St. Olaf, I full intended to study Engineering, but the latter meant a year away from St. Olaf. I had probably the time-equivalent of a music minor because of playing in the band, and just could not leave.”Olson met Gary Nelson through music as well (Gary plays the trombone, Collin the euphonium). A colleague at one of Olson’s first jobs ran into Gary at a music event, and told Gary she had a PhD in Physics on staff who seemed way better suited to the work that Gary was doing at TEC. That was 1994 and Olson has been with TEC ever since.With introductions out of the way, I started with basic questions about blower doors and proceeded from there. What you’ll find below is an edited version of our conversation, a paraphrasing of Collin’s responses, not a transcript. I did this for clarity and to present in writing the most useful information from a long interview as efficiently as possible. For the full interview, and more context, you can listen to the audio recording below.How does a blower door work?The fan motor and blades push air out of the building with the fan sensor located where the air is being pulled into the fan [more on this below]. Channel A reads the house pressure [with the reference outside], while Channel B measures the pressure at the fan sensor and just upstream of the sensor, converting this pressure difference to flow.NOTE: The relationship between the pressure difference inside to outside the building and the air flow resulting from the pressure difference can be expressed by a power law equation:Q = CΔPnQ is the flow (cubic feet per minute), C is a constant, P is pressure, and n is the exponent of the power law equation.The exponent can vary between 0.5 and 1.0, with essentially big holes in the building making an exponent of 0.5 the best fit (curved line) and very tiny holes making the exponent of 1 the best fit (a straight line). The cool thing about this power law equation is that it is just about the relationship between pressure and flow. Yes, other factors such as temperature and air density have impact, but they are easy to correct for and don’t fundamentally affect the pressure/flow relationship.Why doesn’t “necking” down the fan with different rings create turbulence and mess with the key relationship between pressure and flow?Think of the air just upstream of the fan sensor—where the air is being pulled in—as the water just above two rocks restricting flow in a stream. That water is smooth while the water downstream is turbulent. A similar situation takes place in the blower door and this is why the fan sensor is on the “calm” upstream side of the set up and why restricting the blower door with rings does not really disturb what happens at the sensor.Calm water is upstream of chute formed by two rocks in this river, while the water below is turbulent. This is analogous to the air before and after entering the blower door fan. the Photo courtesy of the author.The other thing going on here is that the air is moving so fast, regardless of which ring is being used, that there is not really time for turbulence right where the air is being pulled past the sensor.When performing a blower door test, is depressurizing the house inherently more accurate than pressurizing the house?This is an interesting question with a couple of answers. First, since to pressurize you just spin the fan around, the sensor is still upstream in the “calm” spot. And the fan does not really care or know which way it faces.However, during a depressurization test, the air upstream of the sensor is on the inside of the building and that air is always calm. During a pressurization test, the air upstream of the sensor is outside the building, where wind—either steady or gusting—can create “noise.”Wind creates problems that can be overcome with an averaging baseline for depressurization but the wind can create an added problem during pressurization testing.How do we know what exponent to use for any one building?It turns out that for most buildings, the exponents are fairly clustered around .65, and if you are just doing a single-point test and using the cfm50 result, the impact is not really worth worrying over. However, if you extrapolate the ELA at 4 Pa from that single-point test with an assumed exponent—to better assess infiltration—then you could be introducing significant error.To really compare how a building performs at 50 Pa of pressure difference to how it performs at 4 Pa pressure difference, a multi-point test can generate a curve and a better value for n, the exponent. But it is harder to get accurate pressure readings at low pressures and this also does not tell us anything about where the leaks are, an important part of understanding the air leakage a building experiences.Shouldn’t we be using a different exponent for before and after deep energy retrofits and when doing AeroBarrier air sealing?Look at it this way: you just changed the leakage factor in these buildings by a factor of 20 or so and that is like pulling an SUV off the road and replacing it with a plug-in Prius.NOTE: To be fair to AeroBarrier, here is how their protocol works:Before and after the air sealing process, single point tests at 50 Pa are conducted.During the sealing process, the building is pressurized to 100 Pa, and the cfm50 is extrapolated.AeroBarrier is working on incorporating multi-point testing into their protocol and software so that they will be generating a value for n instead of assuming 0.65. And AeroBarrier is interested in better understanding the drivers behind pressurization and depressurization differences to determine what role it should play in their protocol.How different is using a duct blaster instead of a blower door fan for building air tightness testing?The only thing that really changes is the shroud. We should be using a duct blaster for building air tightness more often. It works for homes in the 3 to 5 ACH50 range. And for multi-family unit testing you can literally leave the fan in the panel as you move it from floor to floor and unit to unit, assuming that the unit entry doors are the same size. In Europe, they call TEC’s duct blaster a mini-blower door.This photo shows a blower door on Passive House project with a duct blaster used as the fan. Photo courtesy of Steve Baczek.Is the Sonic LQ approach a viable option for measuring air leakage?Fundamentally, if you want to know how much air flows through a building, you need to measure how much air flows through a building. Blower door testing is pretty much a DC phenomenon while sound is more of an AC phenomenon. Pascal’s principle states that when you create pressure in a closed vessel, that pressure makes it way all around the building at the speed of sound.Sound waves drop off in intensity as the square root of the radius of their generation. This makes the AC phenomenon of sound a good complementary air leakage assessment tool for local or targeted air leakage but not well-suited for whole buildings.Note: Airtightness testing for really big buildings is problematic: tough to schedule, very invasive to construction progress, often requiring sectioning, etc.If Sonic LQ is not the answer, what is the answer for big buildings?When we start to take our efficiency industry as important as the tile in the lobby, we will have in our schedules and in our plans accommodations for testing and people in our industry won’t have to work nights and weekends. It’s a matter of people recognizing the importance of air tightness testing and giving the issue the attention it is due.The TEC DG1000 is a huge breakthrough, essentially combining a pressure gauge and a computer.Yes. What’s new with the TEC DG1000?One of the latest updates adds Bluetooth capability. This was a really difficult technical hurdle, even though we had the antenna already built into the gauge. Before, if you pulled up the TEC app on your phone to run the blower door remotely, it pretty much shut down the other capabilities of your phone. With Bluetooth, a point-to-point connection is made between the gauge and your phone, so you can still use say, google, on your phone.Listen to the author’s complete interview with Collin Olson: -Peter Yost is GBA’s technical director. He is also the founder of a consulting company in Brattleboro, Vermont, called Building-Wright. He routinely consults on the design and construction of both new homes and retrofit projects. He has been building, researching, teaching, writing, and consulting on high-performance homes for more than twenty years, and he’s been recognized as NAHB Educator of the Year. Do you have a building science puzzle? Contact Pete here.
TORONTO – Two of Canada’s biggest insurers delivered third-quarter earnings that beat expectations but while Manulife Financial Corp. got a boost from its Asia business, the region weighed down results for Sun Life Financial Corp.Manulife’s profit for the quarter ended Sept. 30 surged 42 per cent to $1.57 billion compared to the earlier-year period, helped by a roughly 22 per cent increase in core earnings in Asia that helped offset a drop in net income at home.Sun Life reported net income of $567 million to mark a 30 per cent drop year over year, but beat analyst expectations with its underlying net income of $730 million for the quarter. Still, the insurer’s underlying net income from Asia declined by 15 per cent.“Our Canadian, U.S. and Asset Management businesses each delivered double-digit earnings growth, while Asia results were lower this quarter from higher levels of new business strain,” Sun Life chief executive Dean Connor told analysts on a call Thursday.Canadian insurers have targeted Asia for growth in recent years, positioning themselves to benefit from burgeoning middle classes and demographic trends in the region. The strategy has paid off in previous quarters for both insurers in terms of strong profit growth, but provided differing contributions in the latest period.Still, both insurers beat analyst expectations. Sun Life reported adjusted earnings per share of $1.20, ahead of the $1.17 expected by analysts surveyed by Thomson Reuters Eikon. Manulife reported adjusted earnings per share of $0.75, ahead of the $0.67 expected.Power Financial Corp., whose subsidiaries include Great-West Lifeco Inc., reported on Thursday adjusted net earnings attributable to shareholders of $578 million or $0.81 per share, up from $0.65 a year ago but short of the $0.82 expected by analysts.Shares of Manulife were up nearly more than four per cent in Toronto at $22.37 in the afternoon, while Power Financial’s shares were relatively flat on Thursday afternoon at $28.68.Sun Life’s stock, however, was down by more than two per cent to $48.27.“While Sun’s ability to maintain the strong earnings from the preceding quarter is a positive, we note that the sequential and year-over-year decline in contribution from Asia will likely be viewed negatively,” said John Aiken, an analyst with Barclays in Toronto in a note to clients.“Management noted that the weaker performance was driven by higher new business strain, lower gains and higher expenses driven by investing in the business.”The underlying fundamentals of the economy in Asia still point towards “strong growth,” said Sun Life Financial Asia president Claude Accum. Philippines and India showed strong quarterly growth, while there was some slowdown in broker sales in Hong Kong, he told analysts Thursday.“That growth is not going to emerge in a straight line each quarter, but the underlying growth is robust.”Meanwhile, while Manulife’s latest quarterly results were positively viewed, comments by a prominent short-seller about the potential negative consequences of an impending court verdict continued to cast a shadow.U.S. short-seller Muddy Waters said last month that Manulife’s life insurance subsidiary’s recent trial in Saskatchewan involving an insurance contract purchased by a hedge fund called Mosten Investment LP, depending on the judge’s verdict, could lead to “billions of dollars of losses.” Mosten argued that it can deposit an unlimited amount of money with Manulife through the contract and received an annualized guaranteed return of at least four per cent — terms which could “financially cripple” the Canadian insurer.Manulife’s chief executive Roy Gori called this claim “commercially absurd” on Thursday, reiterating the company’s view that this is contrary to the purpose of these insurance policies and associated regulation.On a call with analysts discussing its latest earnings, Gori pointed to recent amendments to Saskatchewan insurance regulations which would limit the amount of premiums a life insurer may receive or accept for deposit in life insurance policies and associated side accounts.Gori reiterated that Manulife intends to make submissions to the court, in light of these new regulations, to dismiss the Mosten case.“We believe this should accelerate the resolution of the principal litigation matters in our favour… We remain highly confident that we will ultimately prevail in this matter and that it will not have any material impact on our business operations.”Companies in this story: (TSX:SLF, TSX:MFC, TSX:PWF)
FORT ST. JOHN, B.C. – All previously approved water diversions under Section 10 of the Water Sustainability Act are immediately suspended by the BC Oil and Gas Commission (BCOGC), due to drought conditions.Peace River Watershed: Alces River Beatton River (Doig River, Osborne River, Blueberry River) Farrell Creek Cache CreekTributaries to the Kiskatinaw River (but does not include the Kiskatinaw River) Liard River Watershed: Fontas River Kantah River Petitot River Gutah Creek Hay RiverThe suspension does not apply to the main channel of the Peace River or Dinosaur Lake and the diversion and use of water stored in dugouts or dams are not suspended.Water levels are anticipated to continue dropping until significant rain falls in the area. The Commission will assist industry in identifying options for alternative short-term water supply should it be required during this period of drought. Low streamflow conditions are escalating concerns for impacts to fish, aquatic resources and community supply in the above basins.More information can be found on the B.C. Government Drought Information page; CLICK HEREApplications for water diversion:Given local variability, it is possible some streams in the areas under suspension will have recovered sufficiently to allow some water withdrawal. The Commission will review new applications for diversion, or requests to use existing approvals, on a site-specific basis.Operators are requested to do the following to support their application or request to use an existing Section 10 approval: 1. Limit the application to water volumes and points of diversion that are realistic to the specific operational needs for the upcoming months.2. For new applications for diversion for water from rivers and streams, or to request use of existing approvals, provide a good discharge measurement at the point(s) of diversion, to provide information on current flow conditions in relation to the volume of water requested. The discharge measurement will be collected to an acceptable hydrometric standard by a qualified individual.3. For new applications for diversion from lakes, or reactivation of existing approvals, provide information on lake bathymetry:a. Surface area (hectares).b. Depth (metres). If lake depth information is not already available from provincial databases or previous surveys, obtain depth measurements at points along two transects representing the long and short lake axes, to determine maximum lake depth.c. Volume
Gurugram: On a petition filed by Defence Minister, the Punjab and Haryana High Court ordered that 900 metres around the Indian Air Force depot were illegal. It was later reduced to 300 metres by the court after politicians from all parties highlighted that how it would be difficult to accommodate the four lakh people who are settled around the area.Subsequently after court’s permission, some of the houses were also given electricity and water connections. Various houses and shops in the Sheetla colony being sealed, a situation that has not gone well with thousands of residents residing in the area. What, however, generated controversy was the sealing of a mosque last year which after hue and cry was made to function. On his recent visit, Gurugram MP Rao Inderjit Singh minced no word in highlighting that irregularities were maintained by the officials giving licences to the people around the ammunition depot. He also, however, highlighted that now since the people were settled, their interests had to be taken care of. Also Read – Bangla Sahib Gurudwara bans use of all types of plastic itemsEven as objections were raised by Airforce officials to prohibit the setting up of civil establishments, a number of civil setups have only grown around the area. Not only the Airforce station but even an Army cantonment area that is located few kilometres away face the similar challenges. On the repeated complaints by Defence personnel, a plea was filed seeking the intervention of judiciary into the matter. The real estate development over the years has led to unchecked rise in the commercial establishments. The presence of the Maruti Suzuki factory further expedited the real estate development. Automobile garages, wedding banquet halls, marble market and various consumer showrooms began to be set up in the vast swathes of land around the Defence land. The issue has been in controversy for long where various prominent citizens including the sitting MLA Umesh Aggarwal has advocated of the relocation of the Airforce station. At present, the High Court has directed the DC office to only remove the civil establishments situated around 300 metres area of the Airforce ammunition station.
New Delhi: The Ministry of Home Affairs has conveyed to the Delhi High Court that it, along with the Ministry of Defence, will abide by any decision of the Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) on the dual control over the Assam Rifles.In an affidavit filed to the Delhi High Court, the MHA has conveyed that the Union Home Secretary had held a meeting with the Defence Secretary on April 4 to discuss the issue. Assam Riffles, the 184-year-old paramilitary force of the country, is under the administrative control of the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) while the operational control lies with the Ministry of Defence (MoD). Also Read – Uddhav bats for ‘Sena CM’The meeting discussed about a note moved by the MHA for the CCS on March 20 for resolving the issue of dual control over Assam Rifles. The CCS is chaired by the Prime Minister and comprises the Minister of External Affairs, the Home minister, the Finance minister and the Defence minister. It was decided by both MHA and MoD that they will abide by the decision of the CCS, the MHA told the high court in its affidavit. The court is now learnt to have issued a notice to the Cabinet Secretary to inform it as to what decision the CCS had taken on the note forwarded to it by the MHA, an official said. Also Read – Farooq demands unconditional release of all detainees in J&KThe court was hearing a petition filed by the Assam Rifles Ex-Servicemen Welfare Association through lawyer Neha Rathi on the difficulties faced by the retired personnel of the force with regard to the payment of pension due to the dual control of the force. The Assam Rifles came into being in 1835 as a militia called the ‘Cachar Levy’. With approximately 750 men, this force was formed to primarily protect British tea estates and their settlements against tribal raids. Subsequently, all these forces were reorganised and renamed as the ‘Frontier Force’ as their role was increased to conduct of punitive expeditions across the borders of undivided Assam. This force significantly contributed in opening the region to administration and commerce and over time it came to be known as the “right arm of the civil and left arm of the military”.